From biomass to glassy carbon and carbynes: evidence of possible meteorite impact shock coalification and carbonization
K. Ernstson, T. G. Shumilova, S. I. Isaenko, A. Neumair, M. A. Rappenglück
Shortly after the meeting, May 19-22, in Syktyvkar the 546 pages Proceedings volume has been published:
Modern problems of theoretical, experimental and applied mineralogy (Yushkin Memorial Seminar–2013): Proceedings of mineralogical seminar with international participation. Syktyvkar: IG Komi SC UB RAS, 2013. 546 p.
The above-mentioned contribution by Ernstson et al. addresses the many various carbon modifications (among them the chiemite probable impactite featuring highest pressures and temperatures) pointing to a shock coalification of the vegetation affected by the Chiemgau impact in southeast Germany. Shock coalification in this case is to be understood, different from the long-lasting geologic coal formation (organic matter > peat > lignite > hard coal > anthracite), as an immediate short-term conversion of organic matter (in particular wood, peat) to highest coalification levels spontaneously leading to glass-like carbon and chiemite by the extreme impact shock. The model is strongly supported by many finds such as diatoms and cyanobacteria in very dense, hard glass-like carbon and wood particles that are baked into the high-pressure/high-temperature chiemite.