At the this year’s Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in the Woodlands, Texas, the abstract article entitled “Strong shock metamorphism and a crater: evidence of a Holocene meteorite impact event near Nalbach (Saarland, Germany)” by Nico Berger, Werner Müller and Kord Ernstson was presented. Here, we in particular point out that the peculiar findings in the Nalbach area are revealing remarkable similarities to impact features in the Holocene large Chiemgau impact strewn field in southeast Germany, and meanwhile the possibility that the Nalbach impact is a companion to the Chiemgau impact is seriously being discussed. Click on the image to open the full text!
Under the scanning electron microscope (SEM): The odd world of the iron silicides from the Chiemgau impact meteorite crater strewn field (click to enlarge). Contribution to the mineralogy meeting of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Syktyvkar:
Meteorite impact on a micrometer scale: iron silicide, carbide and CAI minerals from the Chiemgau impact event (Germany)
Michael A. Rappenglück1, Frank Bauer2, Kord Ernstson3, Michael Hiltl4
1 Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies, Gilching, Germany; email@example.com – 2 Oxford Instruments GmbH NanoScience, Wiesbaden, Germany; Frank.firstname.lastname@example.org – 3Faculty of Philosophy I, University of Würzburg, Germany; email@example.com – 4 Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Oberkochen, Germany; firstname.lastname@example.org
Shortly after the meeting between the 19th and 22nd May in Syktyvkar the Proceedings volume has been published:
Problems and perspectives of modern mineralogy (Yushkin Memorial Seminar–2014) Proceedings of mineralogical seminar with international participation Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, Russia 19–22 May 2014
The Rappenglück et al. contribution condenses the mineralogical evidence of the iron silicides from the Chiemgau impact crater strewn field that has been compiled with invaluable support by Carl Zeiss Microscopy und Oxford Instruments NanoScience.
We remind of the fact that in the beginning of the research on the Chiemgau impact the group of quite experienced local historians and amateur archeologists had detected the metallic iron silicides and, after having been aware of their relation to crateriform structures, had published the possible meteoritic origin of the matter. Investigations and attempts, respectively, to dismiss all iron silicides as industrial waste product, or at least as terrestrial, followed, and they are still spread rumors as for instance by the Bavarian Geological Survey (Landesamt für Umwelt, LfU) which is commented (in German) elsewhere and may be clicked HERE.
Ultimately it is evident that these local historians who later got together with scientists from geosciences, astronomy, archeology and historical scholarship to establish the Chiemgau Impact Research Team (CIRT), are proved right!
The abstract article from the Proceedings volume may be clicked HERE. The corresponding, much more informative POSTER may be clicked also for download. PLEASE NOTE: Depending on the selected browser the screen quality may appear quite different. As the case may be we suggest to save the file on the computer and to activate it with a pdf reading program. WARNING: The poster pdf has a size of more than 50 megabyte.
In addition to the report on the microtektites from the foothills of the Alps we present here the LPSC abstract paper (click to open the full article):
Tektites are well-known gravel-size natural glasses that according to current knowledge form in the very early process of impact cratering by melting and/or vaporizing of superficial soil and rocks ejected as melt or vapor from the impact crater. On reentry in the atmosphere and cooling, the glass bodies exhibiting characteristic shapes fall to Earth where they form part of the impact ejecta. By definition tektites that are smaller than 1 mm are called microtektites. Although the origin of tektites from impact events is generally accepted the exact mode of formation is not well understood.
In the Chiemgau meteorite crater strewn field impact glasses are found widespread in various formations, and tektite-like bodies of a dense black glass with vesicles have attracted considerable attention (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Dense black glass particles from the Chiemgau impact strewn field frequently exhibiting tektite-like shape and twisted form similar to irghizites from the Zhamanshin impact crater. These are NOT the Chiemgau microtektites! – Click to enlarge.
Outside the crater strewn field in the foothills of the Alps at some 1500 m altitude (Fig. 2) a systematic search for impact fallout has revealed not only abundant tiny iron silicide particles (e.g., minerals xifengite and gupeiite) but also microtektites widely distributed in the soils (Fig. 3).
They show the very typical splash shapes like spheres, teardrops and irregular dumbbells (Fig. 3). They are fully transparent and have a mostly yellowish-brownish-grayish color. Bubble inclusions are frequent.
The SEM micrographs in Fig. 4 especially point to the in part very strange surface features and bizarre forms exhibiting micrometer-sized glass filaments and twisted bodies.
Fig. 4. SEM images of microtektite-like glass particles.
Note the tiny, micrometer-sized glass filaments (lower
right) of the particle over it.
Microtektites are known, e.g., from the North American strewn field (cores from the Deep Sea Drilling Project), from the Australasian tektite strewn field, from the Ivory Coast strewn field and seem to be associated with the Chicxulub KT impact and Late Eocene impacts. A problem with proposed microtektite occurrences may arise from a possible confusion with spherules of an origin other than from impact vapor/melt solidification especially when a direct relation with an impact site is lacking. Even volcanic spherules may show dumbbell and teardrop shapes, while industrially produced microscopic glass spheres (e.g. from fly ash) have in general no teardrop or dumbbell counterparts. A comprehensive consideration of the various possibilities including volcanic, man-made and even organic matter is given by Glass & Simonson (2013).
In the case of the Chiemgau impact microtektites a confusion with volcanic or man-made glass particles can be excluded with a high degree of probability since the very nearby really existing impact site and the exceptionally typical shape of known microtektites provide the simplest explanation for their origin. Nevertheless, a thorough analysis of their composition and a highly magnifying SEM imagery of their surfaces are in progress. Perhaps, some more insight into the general process of microtektite formation – in this case possibly as an impact vapor plume condensate – can be attained.
Glass, B. P. and Simonson, B.M. (2013): Distal Impact Ejecta Layers: A Record of Large Impacts in Sedimentary Deposits. – Impact Studies, 400 p., Springer.
A new Thunderhole (Donnerloch) and reactions
Since our contribution (Dec 2, 2011) on the impact-induced rock liquefaction (soil liquefaction) and the Thunderhole phenomenon, quite a few new sinkholes have occurred in the Kienberg region north of Lake Chiemsee. The latest somewhat spectacular cave-in happened two weeks ago. A family of mushroom pickers underway in the forest suddenly stopped at a freshly collapsed hole, 1-2 m in diameter and, as later measured, 8 m deep (Fig. 1). Having had a severe scare they at once informed police and fire department for securing the dangerous place. And this was the way the Thunderhole phenomenon for the first time found its way to the media, and newspapers, sound radio and television reported on this “fantastic story” widely initiating public awareness of this geologic hazard in the region. And now people got informed about large ponds and septic tanks having run dry overnight, about broken front axles when farmers had run with their tractor into a suddenly collapsed Thunderhole, about trees that suddenly began to incline, about beginning soil subsidence several meters wide immediately besides a road, about a Thunderhole exactly on a crossroad, about big open cavities in the underground that had to be sealed by enormous quantities of cement before a new fire station could be built, and so on.
Fig 1. The new 8 m deep Thunderhole in the Kienberg region. Photo H. Schiebl.
To investigate the newly formed Thunderhole geologically we performed a geophysical survey of complex resistivity measurements (resistivity and induced polarization electrical imaging, Fig. 2), and we found the same geologic scenario we had established earlier when we had applied voluminous excavations and geoelectrics to other Thunderholes: The origin of the Thunderholes is closely related with soil liquefaction accompanied by strongest movements of sand, gravel and big rock boulders bottom up, and the sinkhole character is a later, secondary effect only. And like with strongest earthquakes the Chiemgau Thunderhole rock liquefaction was initiated by the shock of the gigantic Chiemgau meteorite impact event in the Bronze Age/Celtic era.
Fig 2. The Thunderhole sinkhole and a larger endangered area seen in apparent resistivity and induced polarization pseudosections.
Amazingly (not to say ridiculously enough), the officials of the geological survey of Bavaria (Landesamt für Umwelt, LfU) and the local geologist Dr. Robert Darga from the Siegsdorf museum are completely trivializing the phenomenon declaring the Thunderholes as dead-ice holes and speaking of quite normal sinkholes as having occurred in thousands all over Bavaria. Hence they are absolutely ignoring the detailed geological and geophysical investigations of the phenomenon, while contradicting all serious science and research. To understand this highly nonscientific behavior one must know that the officials of the geological survey and Dr. Darga are fearing the Chiemgau impact event come hell or high water …
The following contributions to the MetSoc Meeting, July 29 – August 2, Edmonton, Canada, may be downloaded here:
Michael A. Rappenglück, Frank Bauer, Michael Hiltl, Andreas Neumair, Kord Ernstson:
CALCIUM-ALUMINUM-RICH INCLUSIONS (CAIs) IN IRON SILICIDE (XIFENGITE, GUPEIITE, HAPKEITE) MATTER: EVIDENCE OF A COSMIC ORIGIN
Click Abstract CAIs!
Frank Bauer, Michael Hiltl, Michael A. Rappenglück, Andreas Neumair, Kord Ernstson:
Click Abstract hapkeite !
Andreas Neumair, Kord Ernstson:
PECULIAR HOLOCENE SOIL LAYERS: EVIDENCE OF POSSIBLE DISTAL EJECTA DEPOSITS IN THE CHIEMGAU REGION, SOUTHEAST GERMANY
Click Abstract distal ejecta !
Kord Ernstson, Werner Müller, Andreas Neumair:
From biomass to glassy carbon and carbynes: evidence of possible meteorite impact shock coalification and carbonization
K. Ernstson, T. G. Shumilova, S. I. Isaenko, A. Neumair, M. A. Rappenglück
Shortly after the meeting, May 19-22, in Syktyvkar the 546 pages Proceedings volume has been published:
Modern problems of theoretical, experimental and applied mineralogy (Yushkin Memorial Seminar–2013): Proceedings of mineralogical seminar with international participation. Syktyvkar: IG Komi SC UB RAS, 2013. 546 p.
The above-mentioned contribution by Ernstson et al. addresses the many various carbon modifications (among them the chiemite probable impactite featuring highest pressures and temperatures) pointing to a shock coalification of the vegetation affected by the Chiemgau impact in southeast Germany. Shock coalification in this case is to be understood, different from the long-lasting geologic coal formation (organic matter > peat > lignite > hard coal > anthracite), as an immediate short-term conversion of organic matter (in particular wood, peat) to highest coalification levels spontaneously leading to glass-like carbon and chiemite by the extreme impact shock. The model is strongly supported by many finds such as diatoms and cyanobacteria in very dense, hard glass-like carbon and wood particles that are baked into the high-pressure/high-temperature chiemite.
The Tschebarkul 2013 super bolide, Tscheljabinsk, Russia – what do we currently know?
Explosion and impact of the meteor: In the meantime the commotion has died down and has given way to more factual information and scientific relevance, and here on our website we would like to dedicate sufficient coverage of the current knowledge.
Such an event that we have now witnessed in Russia undoubtedly highlights also the Chiemgau impact and the related discussions about the impact parameters like the kind of impactor, fragmentation in the atmosphere and the dimensions of the strewn field.
Source: Svetlana Korzhava; WIKIMEDIA COMMONS
Important information is coming directly from Russia where as is well known good scientific relations of the CIRT exist, and we thank particularly Dr. Slava Gusiakov from the Holocene Impact Working Group for his personal communication.
Our article: Continue reading
THE CHIEMGAU METEORITE IMPACT SIGNATURE OF THE STÖTTHAM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE (SOUTHEAST GERMANY)
ABSTRACT. – Archaeological excavation at Chieming-Stöttham in the Chiemgau region of Southeast Germany revealed a diamictic (breccia) layer sandwiched between a Neolithic and a Roman occupation layer. This exotic layer bears evidence of its deposition in a catastrophic event that is attributed to the Chiemgau meteorite impact. In the extended crater strewn field produced by the impact, geological excavations have uncovered comparable horizons with an anomalous geological inventory intermixed with archaeological material. Evidences of extreme destruction, temperatures and pressures including impact shock effects suggest that the current views on its being an undisturbed colluvial depositional sequence as postulated by archaeologists and pedologists/geomorphologists is untenable.
Since a few years there is evidence of a dual meteorite crater at the bottom of Lake Chiemsee (Fig. 4) in the Chiemgau meteorite crater strewn field. The search for a suspected impact into the lake was originally based on reports of fishermen about unusual sharp-edged large stones at the lake bottom that had damaged their fishnets. Such stones are in fact foreign matter in the lake. A general echo sounder campaign, followed by a detailed survey veritably revealed a peculiar structure, likewise a foreign element in the lake, with all evidence of a rimmed doublet crater (Fig.1).
The similarity to meteoritic dual craters on Mars is striking (Fig. 2). From the Mars image it is evident that the doublet structure formed on synchronous impact of twin projectiles. Continue reading