From biomass to glassy carbon and carbynes: evidence of possible meteorite impact shock coalification and carbonization
K. Ernstson, T. G. Shumilova, S. I. Isaenko, A. Neumair, M. A. Rappenglück
Shortly after the meeting, May 19-22, in Syktyvkar the 546 pages Proceedings volume has been published:
Modern problems of theoretical, experimental and applied mineralogy (Yushkin Memorial Seminar–2013): Proceedings of mineralogical seminar with international participation. Syktyvkar: IG Komi SC UB RAS, 2013. 546 p.
The above-mentioned contribution by Ernstson et al. addresses the many various carbon modifications (among them the chiemite probable impactite featuring highest pressures and temperatures) pointing to a shock coalification of the vegetation affected by the Chiemgau impact in southeast Germany. Shock coalification in this case is to be understood, different from the long-lasting geologic coal formation (organic matter > peat > lignite > hard coal > anthracite), as an immediate short-term conversion of organic matter (in particular wood, peat) to highest coalification levels spontaneously leading to glass-like carbon and chiemite by the extreme impact shock. The model is strongly supported by many finds such as diatoms and cyanobacteria in very dense, hard glass-like carbon and wood particles that are baked into the high-pressure/high-temperature chiemite.
The abstract article from the Proceedings volume can be clicked HERE. The respective POSTER may also be clicked and downloaded.
The Tschebarkul 2013 super bolide, Tscheljabinsk, Russia – what do we currently know?
Explosion and impact of the meteor: In the meantime the commotion has died down and has given way to more factual information and scientific relevance, and here on our website we would like to dedicate sufficient coverage of the current knowledge.
Such an event that we have now witnessed in Russia undoubtedly highlights also the Chiemgau impact and the related discussions about the impact parameters like the kind of impactor, fragmentation in the atmosphere and the dimensions of the strewn field.
Source: Svetlana Korzhava; WIKIMEDIA COMMONS
Important information is coming directly from Russia where as is well known good scientific relations of the CIRT exist, and we thank particularly Dr. Slava Gusiakov from the Holocene Impact Working Group for his personal communication.
THE CHIEMGAU METEORITE IMPACT SIGNATURE OF THE STÖTTHAM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE (SOUTHEAST GERMANY)
K. Ernstson, C. Sideris, I. Liritzis, A. Neumair
ABSTRACT. – Archaeological excavation at Chieming-Stöttham in the Chiemgau region of Southeast Germany revealed a diamictic (breccia) layer sandwiched between a Neolithic and a Roman occupation layer. This exotic layer bears evidence of its deposition in a catastrophic event that is attributed to the Chiemgau meteorite impact. In the extended crater strewn field produced by the impact, geological excavations have uncovered comparable horizons with an anomalous geological inventory intermixed with archaeological material. Evidences of extreme destruction, temperatures and pressures including impact shock effects suggest that the current views on its being an undisturbed colluvial depositional sequence as postulated by archaeologists and pedologists/geomorphologists is untenable.
The article addresses the geologic inventory of the archeological excavation at Chieming-Stöttham in the year 2007, the impact features of the intercalated catastrophic layer and the relation to the Chiemgau impact. The article also emphasizes the basically different viewpoints of the geomorphological-pedologic work (escorting the archeological excavation and performed at the behest of Bayerisches Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege by Prof. J. Völkel, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der technischen Universität München) on the one hand, and the geologic-mineralogic-petrographical work of the impact researchers on the other hand.
Since a few years there is evidence of a dual meteorite crater at the bottom of Lake Chiemsee (Fig. 4) in the Chiemgau meteorite crater strewn field. The search for a suspected impact into the lake was originally based on reports of fishermen about unusual sharp-edged large stones at the lake bottom that had damaged their fishnets. Such stones are in fact foreign matter in the lake. A general echo sounder campaign, followed by a detailed survey veritably revealed a peculiar structure, likewise a foreign element in the lake, with all evidence of a rimmed doublet crater (Fig.1).
Fig. 1. The proposed meteorite doublet crater at the bottom of Lake Chiemsee from detailed sonar echo sounder measurements. Meter scale indicates water depth.
The similarity to meteoritic dual craters on Mars is striking (Fig. 2). From the Mars image it is evident that the doublet structure formed on synchronous impact of twin projectiles. Continue reading
Do they form a pair? The Chiemgau impact and the suspected Saarland impact.
The earlier stated assumption that the Chiemgau impact may have a counterpart in the Saarland region
has been strengthened by new finds and new geologic and petrographic features. A respective update article may be clicked here:
Session Meteorites and Planets
Carbynes and DLC in naturally occurring carbon matter from the Alpine Foreland, South-East Germany: Evidence of a probable new impactite
S. Isaenko, T. Shumilova, K. Ernstson, S. Shevchuk, A. Neumair, and M. Rappenglück
ABSTRACT download EMC2012-217.
POSTER download EMC-PDF
From the poster: diamond-like carbon (DLC) in the probable impactite from the Chiemgau meteorite impact crater strewn field.
Every four years the International Union of Geosciences (IUGS) coordinates the International Geological Congress.
After a contribution at the 33th congress 2008 in Oslo the CIRT had now a presentation at the this year’s meeting in Brisbane, Australia:
A prehistoric meteorite impact in Southeast Bavaria (Germany): tracing its cultural implications
Barbara RAPPENGLUECK, Kord ERNSTSON, Ioannis LIRITZIS, Werner MAYER, Andreas NEUMAIR, Michael RAPPENGLUECK and Dirk SUDHAUS
Abstract. – A meteorite crater field in Southeast Germany, the Chiemgau region, comprises more than 80 craters scattered in an area of about 60 km x 30 km. The crater diameters range between a few meters and 600 m, forming one of the biggest known areas of Holocene meteorite craters. Continue reading
The Chieming-Stöttham archeological excavation – comments on a recently published article
by Chiemgau Impact Research Team (CIRT)
Abstract: – At the behest of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation (BLfD) the archeological excavation at Stöttham near Lake Chiemsee, which exposed an intercalated geological layer with all evidence of a catastrophic deposition in a meteoritical impact event, was accompanied by a study performed by Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universität München [Science Center of Nutrition, Land Use and Environment, Technical University of Munich, at Weihenstephan]. In the now published article the exposure is most widely described and interpreted from a geomorphological and soil science perspective while the unambiguous impact features implying the typical heavy rock deformations and shock metamorphism (shock effects) are completely ignored. Nevertheless, the authors conclude that there are not any indications of an impact event. Here, we remind of the progress of events, discuss the major shortcomings of Völkel et al.’s article, and conclude that it doesn’t meet scientific requirements. Continue reading